Database management is the system for managing information that supports an organization’s business operations. It includes data storage, distributing it to applications and users, modifying it as necessary as well as monitoring changes to the data and preventing the data from becoming corrupted by unexpected failure. It is a component of the overall infrastructure of a company that supports decision making, corporate growth, and compliance with laws like the GDPR and California Consumer Privacy Act.

In the 1960s, Charles Bachman and IBM along with others created the first database systems. They evolved into the information management systems (IMS) that enabled the storage and retrieve massive amounts of information for a range of uses, from calculating inventory to supporting complicated human resources and financial accounting functions.

A database is a set of tables that arrange data according to a certain scheme, like one-to many relationships. It uses primary keys to identify records, and allow cross-references between tables. Each table is comprised of a set of fields called attributes that provide information about data entities. Relational models, which were developed by E. F. “TedCodd Codd in the 1970s at IBM as a database, are the most used database type today. This design is based on normalizing the data, making it more easy to use. It also makes it easier to update data by avoiding the need to modify different sections of the database.

The majority of DBMSs are able to support multiple types of databases through different levels of external and internal organization. The internal level deals with costs, scalability, and other operational concerns such as the design of the database’s physical storage. The external level is the representation of the database on user interfaces and applications. It could comprise a combination of different external views (based on the various data models) and may also include virtual tables which are generated using generic data to improve performance.